Tag Archive: WHO


ebola-hazmat-suit-apThe highly respected Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy (CIDRAP) at the University of Minnesota just advised the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and World Health Organization (WHO) that “there is scientific and epidemiologic evidence that Ebola virus has the potential to be transmitted via infectious aerosol particles,” including exhaled breath.

CIDRAP is warning that surgical facemasks do not prevent transmission of Ebola, and healthcare professionals (HCP) must immediately be outfitted with full-hooded protective gear and powered air-purifying respirators.

CIDRAP since 2001 has been a global leader in addressing public health preparedness regarding emerging infectious diseases and bio-security responses. CIDRAP’s opinion on Ebola virus is there are “No proven pre- or post-exposure treatment modalities;” “A high case-fatality rate;” and “Unclear modes of transmission.”

In April of 2014, CIDRAP published a commentary on Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) that confirmed the disease “could be an aerosol-transmissible disease, especially in healthcare settings,” similar to the known aerosol transmission capability of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).

Although CIDRAP acknowledges that they were “first skeptical that Ebola virus could be an aerosol-transmissible disease,” they are “now persuaded by a review of experimental and epidemiologic data that this might be an important feature of disease transmission, particularly in healthcare settings.”

CDC’s published “Infection Prevention and Control Recommendations for Hospitalized Patients with Known or Suspected Ebola Virus Disease in U.S. Hospitals” states: “HCP should wear gloves, a gown, disposable shoe covers, and either a face shield that fully covers the front and sides of the face or goggles, and respiratory protection that is at least as protective as a NIOSH certified fit-tested N95 filtering facepiece respirator.”

N95 filters look like surgical masks and are defined by the U.S. Department of Labor as “disposable respirator” with a workplace protection factor (WPF) of 10. A 3M “qualified” N95 respirators rated to block 95% of airborne particles with a size greater in diameter than 5 microns is can cost as little as $.65 each.

However, the US National Institutes of Health reported in 2005 that 50% of bio-aerosols were found to be less than 5 microns in diameter. The NIH calculated that after correcting for dead space and lung deposition, “N95 filtering facepiece respirators seem inadequate against microorganisms.”

CIDRAP warns in regards to N95 respirators, “Healthcare workers have experienced very high rates of morbidity and mortality in the past and current Ebola virus outbreaks. A facemask, or surgical mask, offers no or very minimal protection from infectious aerosol particles.”

CIDRAP is now advising the CDC and WHO that proper “personal protective equipment (PPE) ensures that healthcare workers remain healthy throughout an outbreak.” Based on scientific research, CIDRAP recommends the minimum protection for healthcare professionals in high-risk settings is a “powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) with a hood or helmet” that will filter 99.97% of all particles down to 0.3 microns in diameter.

But the minimum Internet-advertised price for a “qualified” 3M Veraflo respirator is $427.13, compared to about $.65 for an N95 facemask. With Liberia’s per capita GDP only $454 last year and the economy in shambles, there is no way the country’s healthcare professionals can afford to acquire the appropriate protective respirators.

Based on CIDRAP’s research and the fact that Ebola cases are projected to skyrocket, it seems irresponsible that the New York Times and other mainstream media outlets are downplaying the risks of Ebola transmission.

Less than two weeks ago, the NYT’s “Well” column responded to a reader’s question: “Can I get Ebola from public transportation?” with “Implying that Ebola is caught as easily as flu or colds would be untrue and inflammatory.” The “Well” column, again on October 13th, responded to another question: “I’m flying soon. What is the risk of contracting Ebola on a flight?” with “Top Ebola experts have said they would not expect to be infected even if they were sitting next to another passenger with Ebola – unless that passenger actually vomited or bled on them.”

As I pointed out last week at Breitbart News, the Black Death that killed a third of all people in Europe and the Middle East in the three years from 1337 to 1340 appears to have been a “hemorrhagic fever” similar to Ebola. CIDRAP’s warning that Ebola can be spread by “infectious aerosol particles,” such as breathing, means the pandemic should be expected to continue to accelerate.

Chriss Street suggests that if you are interested in Ebola, please read EXPERTS: EBOLA OUTBREAK, BLACK DEATH ‘PLAGUE’ SPREAD FROM AFRICA AS VIRUSES.

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ebola10Okay, we all know that the CDC doesn’t have a handle on Ebola. No one is properly trained, improper equipment to handle Ebola cases, the system doesn’t communicate and the CDC is behind the curve ball playing catch up to the point that the World Health Organization issued a report yesterday about Ebola. The full report can be found here.

In short summary this is what WHO has to say:

That evidence shows that the incubation period can be as long as 42 days. Not the 21 days that the CDC has stated repeatedly.

95% of confirmed cases have an incubation period in the range of 1 to 21 days; 98% have an incubation period that falls within the 1 to 42 day interval.

WHO is alarmed by media reports of suspected Ebola cases imported into new countries that are said, by government officials or ministries of health, to be discarded as “negative” within hours after the suspected case enters the country.
Such rapid determination of infection status is impossible, casting grave doubts on some of the official information that is being communicated to the public and the media.
• For early detection of Ebola virus in suspected or probable cases, detection of viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) or viral antigen are the recommended tests.
• Laboratory-confirmed cases must test positive for the presence of the Ebola virus, either by detection of viral RNA by RT-PCR, and/or by detection of Ebola antigen by a specific Antigen detection test, and/or by detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies directed against Ebola.
• Two negative RT-PCR test results, at least 48 hours apart, are required for a clinically asymptomatic patient to be discharged from hospital, or for a suspected Ebola case to be discarded as testing negative for the virus. (this is my statement, asymptomatic means NO SYMPTOMS!!)
• Laboratory results should be communicated to WHO as quickly as possible, in addition to reporting under the requirements and within the timelines set out in the International Health Regulations, which are administered by WHO.

Note

WHO recommends that the first 25 positive cases and 50 negative specimens detected by a country without a recognized national reference viral haemorrhagic fever laboratory should be sent for secondary confirmatory testing to a WHO collaborating centre, designed as specialized in the safe detection (at biosafety level IV) of viral haemorrhagic fevers.
Similarly, for countries with a national reference laboratory for viral haemorrhagic fevers, the initial positive cases should also be sent to a WHO collaborating centre for confirmation.
If results are concordant, laboratory results reported from the national reference laboratory would be accepted by WHO.

The CDC is NOT doing this. Hospitals are not up to speed on this either.

AND according the CDC’s own website:
When Specimens Should Be Collected for Ebola Testing at CDC:

Ebola virus is detected in blood only after the onset of symptoms, usually fever. It may take up to 3 days after symptoms appear for the virus to reach detectable levels. Virus is generally detectable by real-time RT-PCR from 3-10 days after symptoms appear.
Specimens ideally should be taken when a symptomatic patient reports to a healthcare facility and is suspected of having an Ebola exposure. However, if the onset of symptoms is ❤ days, a later specimen may be needed to completely rule-out Ebola virus, if the first specimen tests negative.

So…in plain English, if someone has only a fever then they can’t be cleared for AT LEAST 3 days if not up to 10 days since the early testing can take up to 10 days for the Ebola virus to show up in the recommended RNA/RT-PCR test.

So let’s see…we have had several people test back ‘negative’ and released shortly there after before conclusive testing is has back from the CDC and I am sure the CDC is sending onto WHO for verification of the negative as they have requested. Where is the harm in waiting the full 10 days IF someone has knowingly been exposed to Ebola (such as the Deputy in Frisco) or the healthcare workers and their contacts? OR if someone who has within the past 8 weeks has been in a country where Ebola is pandemic? What is wrong with our government? On the outside 42 days enforced quarantine should be warranted for those who were directly exposed to Ebola. And by ENFORCED I mean legally quarantined in their homes with restricted movement…

We now have a case of 2nd nurse who traveled from Cleveland to Dallas knowing she had been directly exposed to Ebola and the day after the flight reported to the hospital with a low fever and in fact has tested positive for Ebola. 132 people on the plane now have to be watched. And what about those she had contact with in Cleveland?

Applause go out to the hospital in Richmond, VA (VCU Medical) for keeping the woman in isolation who has so far tested negative for Ebola but has recently traveled from Liberia and has a fever (all that the public is being told). Guess they are paying attention and understand the potential ramifications.

I truly believe that our government and healthcare system needs to get WHO here in this country. These people KNOW their stuff and how to stop it. It is becoming increasing obvious that the CDC and our healthcare system doesn’t. Let’s get the people here who KNOW how to deal with Ebola and lets get real America, this could get serious fast if we don’t clamp down NOW.

While I am deeply sympathetic to the nurses and doctors who risked their lives in helping Duncan, totally ill prepared, uniformed and ill equipped, we are facing a pandemic if we don’t quarantine people for the full 42 days. This is the ONLY way to stop Ebola in its tracks. And we need to do it NOW before it gets out of hand.

ebola deputyAs we continue to monitor the growing concerns of Ebola here in the US, a second potential case is now under observation in the very hospital that Mr.Duncan, the Liberian national who knowing came to US carrying Ebola died in. This second potential case occurred on the same day that patient zero died.

As of 3pm today the patient taken from a Frisco care clinic to Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital Oct. 8 exhibiting possible Ebola symptoms has tested negative for Ebola, according to the Texas Department of Health and Human Services.

Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital Dallas said in a statement Thursday that Micahel Monning remains in good condition one day after he was taken by ambulance to the hospital.
The hospital says Monning does not have a fever, vomiting or diarrhea. Results of further testing are expected later Thursday.

Officials had said earlier that Monning was hospitalized out of an “abundance of caution” after falling ill Wednesday.

Monning went to an urgent care clinic in Fisco, a northern suburb of Dallas, and was exhibiting enough symptoms of Ebola to trigger a preliminary screening, Frisco fire Chief Mark Piland said. He did not specify the symptoms.

Although I personally watched the news conference wherein Chief Piland did state that Monning had 4 symptoms typical of early bola.

First symptoms are the sudden onset of fever fatigue, muscle pain, headache and sore throat. This is followed by vomiting, diarrhea, rash, symptoms of impaired kidney and liver function, and in some cases, both internal and external bleeding (e.g. oozing from the gums, blood in the stools). Laboratory findings include low white blood cell and platelet counts and elevated liver enzymes. (WHO)

I would personally questions what symptoms Monnig had that would trigger a preliminary screening and further testing especially given that just 5 days ago, a man and his daughter who were from Liberia were held on a plane coming into Newark International after the man was vomiting and showing signs of ebola. It only took health officials several hours to confirm that he did NOT have Ebola.

And now, as of 3pm today, October 9th, Texas Health officials are saying Monnig who entered the apartment without any protective gear does not have Ebola. However, according to the city of Frisco communications office, CareNow administrators have decided to close tonight and remain closed until the morning of Oct. 10 while the facility undergoes deep cleaning.

The CDC still ascertains that the ONLY way to contract Ebola is with direct contact with infected bodily fluids. However, just a few days ago on October 6th the World Health Organization put out an update bulletin about Ebola transmission.

“The Ebola virus is transmitted among humans through close and direct physical contact with infected bodily fluids, the most infectious being blood, feces and vomit.
The Ebola virus has also been detected in breast milk, urine and semen. In a convalescent male, the virus can persist in semen for at least 70 days; one study suggests persistence for more than 90 days.
Saliva and tears may also carry some risk. However, the studies implicating these additional bodily fluids were extremely limited in sample size and the science is inconclusive. In studies of saliva, the virus was found most frequently in patients at a severe stage of illness. The whole live virus has never been isolated from sweat.

The Ebola virus can also be transmitted indirectly, by contact with previously contaminated surfaces and objects. The risk of transmission from these surfaces is low and can be reduced even further by appropriate cleaning and disinfection procedures.”

It is also stated in their bulletin that:

“Theoretically, wet and bigger droplets from a heavily infected individual, who has respiratory symptoms caused by other conditions or who vomits violently, could transmit the virus – over a short distance – to another nearby person.
This could happen when virus-laden heavy droplets are directly propelled, by coughing or sneezing (which does not mean airborne transmission) onto the mucus membranes or skin with cuts or abrasions of another person.”

So far, according to reports, none of the family member who had direct contact with Duncan have come down with symptoms of Ebola. But their time is not yet up.

What is most concerning to me is that officials from the CDC continue to deny what the WHO says about transmission of Ebola, and the CDC’s comments that we will see more cases of Ebola in this country.

Why does this need to happen? Also of concern at this time is that as more ‘suspected’ cases are found not to be Ebola is that we as Americans could be lulled into a false sense of ‘security’ that our government and health officials are ‘containing’ it. I would question if false positives are a potential threat. I would also question why decontamination is needed at schools and at the care clinic where Monnig was seen IF what officials are saying to us are true. Just my personal thoughts. Over abundance of caution or ‘preparation’? While I am not trying to strike fear into the heart of anyone, I am just asking questions that need answers before we see another case here in the US.

Stay safe, be prepared
Survivingshtfmom

ebola1The CDC tells us we have nothing to worry about, they got it all under control. Frankly whenever I hear someone say that I go ‘uhhuh’ and take steps to protect myself or take action of some sort without panicking. Panic is fear based ignorance. The more we know about something the easier it is to avoid panic. While I still strongly urge all readers to be prepared for social isolating (the only surefire way of prevention) it is my hope that this will give you some basic information (and not the half truths the CDC is putting out there) on Ebola that will help you understand and be more informed about the hemorrhagic fever, Ebola. At the moment it is NOT considered ‘airborne’ but I do consider ‘aerosol’ droplets to be airborne. See this to understand more. And if not ‘airborne’ then what’s up with the respirators?ebolaclean9

When Ebola first appeared on the world scene it had a death rate of 95% and often burned itself out very quickly. At this point it kills about 50% of those who contract it which points to mutation of the virus. Mother nature has a way of surviving all joking aside. You can’t infect if you kill everyone who gets it. Remember, it has been found still in the blood (which is why they are looking at survivors as potential sources of a cure and/or vaccine) and semen of survivors. If you want the most unvarnished truth about Ebola please visit the WHO website. Our government and doctors are NOT telling us everything we need to know about Ebola. But you will get the truth at WHO. Why are they not telling us the truth? To avoid panic of course. How’s that working? The government has even had the nerve to criticize the media for its reporting on Ebola. But we also have a balance on the other side of those doctors and others in the know who are getting the truth about Ebola out. They do a lot of talking with reassurances and little facts or half truths.

The information below I have taken directly from the WHO website.
Key facts
• Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever, is a severe, often fatal illness in humans.
• The virus is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads in the human population through human-to-human transmission.
• The average EVD case fatality rate is around 50%. Case fatality rates have varied from 25% to 90% in past outbreaks.
• The first EVD outbreaks occurred in remote villages in Central Africa, near tropical rainforests, but the most recent outbreak in west Africa has involved major urban as well as rural areas.
• Community engagement is key to successfully controlling outbreaks. Good outbreak control relies on applying a package of interventions, namely case management, surveillance and contact tracing, a good laboratory service, safe burials and social mobilization.
• Early supportive care with rehydration, symptomatic treatment improves survival. There is as yet no licensed treatment proven to neutralize the virus but a range of blood, immunological and drug therapies are under development.
• There are currently no licensed Ebola vaccines but 2 potential candidates are undergoing evaluation.
________________________________________
Background
The Ebola virus causes an acute, serious illness which is often fatal if untreated. Ebola virus disease (EVD) first appeared in 1976 in 2 simultaneous outbreaks, one in Nzara, Sudan, and the other in Yambuku, Democratic Republic of Congo. The latter occurred in a village near the Ebola River, from which the disease takes its name.
The current outbreak in west Africa, (first cases notified in March 2014), is the largest and most complex Ebola outbreak since the Ebola virus was first discovered in 1976. There have been more cases and deaths in this outbreak than all others combined. It has also spread between countries starting in Guinea then spreading across land borders to Sierra Leone and Liberia, by air (1 traveler only) to Nigeria, and by land (1 traveler) to Senegal.
The most severely affected countries, Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia have very weak health systems, lacking human and infrastructural resources, having only recently emerged from long periods of conflict and instability. On August 8, the WHO Director-General declared this outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.
A separate, unrelated Ebola outbreak began in Boende, Equateur, an isolated part of the Democratic Republic of Congo.
The virus family Filoviridae includes 3 genera: Cuevavirus, Marburgvirus, and Ebolavirus. There are 5 species that have been identified: Zaire, Bundibugyo, Sudan, Reston and Taï Forest. The first 3, Bundibugyo ebolavirus, Zaire ebolavirus, and Sudan ebolavirus have been associated with large outbreaks in Africa. The virus causing the 2014 west African outbreak belongs to the Zaire species.
Transmission
It is thought that fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family are natural Ebola virus hosts. Ebola is introduced into the human population through close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected animals such as chimpanzees, gorillas, fruit bats, monkeys, forest antelope and porcupines found ill or dead or in the rainforest.
Ebola then spreads through human-to-human transmission via direct contact (through broken skin or mucous membranes) with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids (vomit, sneeze/coughing) of infected people and with surfaces and materials (e.g. bedding, clothing) contaminated with these fluids.
Health-care workers have frequently been infected while treating patients with suspected or confirmed EVD. This has occurred through close contact with patients when infection control precautions are not strictly practiced.
Burial ceremonies in which mourners have direct contact with the body of the deceased person can also play a role in the transmission of Ebola.
People remain infectious as long as their blood and body fluids, including semen and breast milk, contain the virus. Men who have recovered from the disease can still transmit the virus through their semen for up to 7 weeks after recovery from illness.
Symptoms of Ebola virus disease
The incubation period, that is, the time interval from infection with the virus to onset of symptoms is 2 to 21 days. Humans are not infectious until they develop symptoms(fever is one). (so far as we know, but remember it is mutating). First symptoms are the sudden onset of fever, fatigue, muscle pain, headache and sore throat. This is followed by vomiting, diarrhea, rash, symptoms of impaired kidney and liver function, and in some cases, both internal and external bleeding (e.g. oozing from the gums, blood in the stools). Laboratory findings include low white blood cell and platelet counts and elevated liver enzymes.
Diagnosis
It can be difficult to distinguish EVD from other infectious diseases such as malaria, typhoid fever and meningitis. Confirmation that symptoms are caused by Ebola virus infection are made using the following investigations:
• antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
• antigen-capture detection tests
• serum neutralization test
• reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay
• electron microscopy
• virus isolation by cell culture.
Samples from patients are an extreme biohazard risk; laboratory testing on non-inactivated samples should be conducted under maximum biological containment conditions.
Treatment and vaccines
Supportive care-rehydration with oral or intravenous fluids- and treatment of specific symptoms, improves survival. There is as yet no proven treatment available for EVD. However, a range of potential treatments including blood products, immune therapies and drug therapies are currently being evaluated. No licensed vaccines are available yet, but 2 potential vaccines are undergoing human safety testing.
Prevention and control
Good outbreak control relies on applying a package of interventions, namely case management, surveillance and contact tracing, a good laboratory service, safe burials and social mobilization (isolation). Community engagement is key to successfully controlling outbreaks. Raising awareness of risk factors for Ebola infection and protective measures that individuals can take is an effective way to reduce human transmission. Risk reduction messaging should focus on several factors:
• Reducing the risk of wildlife-to-human transmission from contact with infected fruit bats or monkeys/apes and the consumption of their raw meat. Animals should be handled with gloves and other appropriate protective clothing. Animal products (blood and meat) should be thoroughly cooked before consumption.
• Reducing the risk of human-to-human transmission from direct or close contact with people with Ebola symptoms, particularly with their bodily fluids. Gloves and appropriate personal protective equipment should be worn when taking care of ill patients at home. Regular hand washing is required after visiting patients in hospital, as well as after taking care of patients at home. And keep your hands off your FACE!!!
• Outbreak containment measures including prompt and safe burial of the dead, identifying people who may have been in contact with someone infected with Ebola, monitoring the health of contacts for 21 days, the importance of separating the healthy from the sick to prevent further spread, the importance of good hygiene and maintaining a clean environment.

The WHO recommendations for cleaning up spills of blood or body fluids suggest flooding the area with a 1:10 dilutions of 5.25% household bleach for 10 minutes for surfaces that can tolerate stronger bleach solutions (e.g., cement, metal) Footnote 62. For surfaces that may corrode or discolor, they recommend careful cleaning to remove visible stains followed by contact with a 1:100 dilution of 5.25% household bleach for more than 10 minutes.

From the MSDS on Ebola:
MODE OF TRANSMISSION: In an outbreak, it is hypothesized that the first patient becomes infected as a result of contact with an infected animal (15). Person-to-person transmission occurs via close personal contact with an infected individual or their body fluids during the late stages of infection or after death (1, 2, 15, 27). Nosocomial infections can occur through contact with infected body fluids due to the reuse of unsterilized syringes, needles, or other medical equipment contaminated with these fluids (1, 2). Humans may be infected by handling sick or dead non-human primates and are also at risk when handling the bodies of deceased humans in preparation for funerals, suggesting possible transmission through aerosol droplets (2, 6, 28). In the laboratory, infection through small-particle aerosols has been demonstrated in primates, and airborne spread among humans is strongly suspected, although it has not yet been conclusively demonstrated (1, 6, 13). The importance of this route of transmission is not clear. Poor hygienic conditions can aid the spread of the virus (6).

INCUBATION PERIOD: Two to 21 days, more often 4 – 9 days (1, 13, 14).

COMMUNICABILITY: Communicable as long as blood, secretions, organs, or semen contain the virus. Ebola virus has been isolated from semen 61 days after the onset of illness, and transmission through semen has occurred 7 weeks after clinical recovery (1, 2)

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS
: Ebola virus is susceptible to 3% acetic acid (vinegar), 1% glutaraldehyde, alcohol-based products, and dilutions (1:10-1:100 for ≥10 minutes) of 5.25% household bleach (sodium hypochlorite), and calcium hypochlorite (bleach powder) (48,49,50,62,63).
PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: Ebola are moderately thermolabile and can be inactivated by heating for 30 minutes to 60 minutes at 60ºC, boiling for 5 minutes, gamma irradiation (1.2 x106 rads to 1.27 x106 rads), and/or UV radiation (3, 6, 20, 32, 33).

SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: The virus can survive in liquid or dried material for a number of days (23). Infectivity is found to be stable at room temperature or at 4°C (39 degrees) for several days, and indefinitely stable at -70°C (6, 20). Infectivity can be preserved by lyophilisation (a method of ‘drying’) My input here…that means surfaces!!!

SOURCES/SPECIMENS: Blood, serum, urine, respiratory and throat secretions, semen, and organs or their homogenates from human or animal hosts (1, 2, 35). Human or animal hosts, including non-human primates, may represent a further source of infection (35).

PRIMARY HAZARDS: Accidental parenteral inoculation, respiratory exposure to infectious aerosols and droplets, and/or direct contact with broken skin or mucous membranes (35).

SPECIAL HAZARDS: Work with, or exposure to, infected non-human primates, rodents, or their carcasses represents a risk of human infection (35).

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Personnel entering the laboratory must remove street clothing, including undergarments, and jewelry, and change into dedicated laboratory clothing and shoes, or don full coverage protective clothing (i.e., completely covering all street clothing). Additional protection may be worn over laboratory clothing when infectious materials are directly handled, such as solid-front gowns with tight fitting wrists, gloves, and respiratory protection. Eye protection must be used where there is a known or potential risk of exposure to splashes (39).

OTHER PRECAUTIONS
: All activities with infectious material should be conducted in a biological safety cabinet (BSC) in combination with a positive pressure suit, or within a class III BSC line. Centrifugation of infected materials must be carried out in closed containers placed in sealed safety cups, or in rotors that are unloaded in a biological safety cabinet. The integrity of positive pressure suits must be routinely checked for leaks. The use of needles, syringes, and other sharp objects should be strictly limited. Open wounds, cuts, scratches, and grazes should be covered with waterproof dressings. Additional precautions should be considered with work involving animal activities (39).

SECTION VIII – HANDLING AND STORAGE

SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle and, wearing protective clothing, gently cover spill with paper towels and apply suitable disinfectant, starting at the perimeter and working towards the centre. Allow sufficient contact time before clean up (39).

DISPOSAL: Decontaminate all materials for disposal from the containment laboratory by steam sterilisation, chemical disinfection, incineration or by gaseous methods. Contaminated materials include both liquid and solid wastes (39).

Information is now surfacing about the original ‘patient zero’ who happened to be a 2 year old. Patient zero is the starting point of a disease and from there it spreads to others building up until it burns itself out.

Here in the US, our patient zero is the Liberian man and yes, I do believe that they don’t have it under control. Sloppiness has been job number one from the beginning and while I do believe that we as a country are in a better position to make the odds of living after Ebola is contracted (which at this moment is 50/50 in Western Africa) why test it? Remember, all a virus wants to do is LIVE and REPRODUCE so killing every host isn’t helping it, so it has to mutate and I believe that carelessness (as seen at the airports and in Dallas) will be our undoing.
ebolaclean5ebolaclean6ebolaclean2ebolaclean4ebolaclean3

I do believe that simply because we have never had to face a pandemic in our generation, that there are too many holes in the system and cultural/medical attitudes that will allow this disease to spread here in the US. Not to mention that Ebola looks very similar in presentation to other, less deadly diseases so I do believe that cases, such as the man who lied to get into the US and landed in Dallas, will happen again and again until our government stops allowing people from the infested areas of Western Africa into our country or makes it mandatory to be quarantined for 21 days when entering our country from potentially infected countries. We have done this before…that is what Elis Island was…a point of entry and quarantine area for those who came to America potentially sick. This sounds harsh, but I believe in this case it is important to do until this current Pandemic is stopped.

Stay safe, be informed and be prepared. Knowledge is the antidote to fear.
survivingshtfmom